An overview of the mental health condition known as bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is characterized by extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (also known as mania or hypomania) and lows (also known as depression).
You may experience feelings of sadness or hopelessness when you develop depression, and you may lose interest in or enjoyment in most activities. bipolar You might feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable when your mood changes to hypomania or mania, which are less severe forms of manic depression.Sleep, energy, activity, judgment, behavior, and the capacity to think clearly can all be affected by these mood swings.
Mood swings can occur frequently or frequently throughout the year.Between episodes, the majority of people will experience some emotional symptoms, but some may not.
If you follow a treatment plan, you can control your mood swings and other symptoms, even though bipolar disorder lasts a lifetime.Psychotherapy and medication are the most common treatments for bipolar disorder.
Symptoms Bipolar and related disorders come in a variety of forms.Depression and mania or hypomania are two examples.The symptoms can cause unpredictability in mood and behavior, which can be very distressing and make life difficult.
Disorder of bipolar I.You’ve experienced at least one manic episode, which could have come before or after hypomanic or major depressive episodes.Mania can lead to a disconnect from reality (psychosis) in some cases.
Disorder of bipolar II.You have experienced at least one episode of hypomanic and at least one episode of major depression, but you have never experienced mania.
Disorder called cyclothymic.You have experienced periods of hypomania and depression (though less severe than major depression) for at least two years, or one year in children and adolescents.
Other kindsThese include, for instance, bipolar disorder and related conditions brought on by alcohol or certain drugs, as well as medical conditions like Cushing’s disease, multiple sclerosis, or stroke.
A distinct diagnosis, bipolar II disorder is not a milder form of bipolar I disorder.People with bipolar II disorder may experience prolonged periods of depression, which can result in significant impairment, in contrast to the severe and dangerous manic episodes of bipolar I disorder.
Although bipolar disorder can manifest at any age, it is typically diagnosed in adolescence or early twenties.The symptoms can differ from person to person and over time.
Mania and hypomania Despite sharing similar symptoms, mania and hypomania are two distinct episodes.In addition to causing difficulties in relationships, mania is more severe than hypomania and causes more obvious issues at work, in school, and in social activities.Psychosis, a break from reality, may occur as well, necessitating hospitalization.
Three or more of the following symptoms are present in either a manic or hypomanic episode:
Exaggerated sense of well-being and self-confidence (euphoria) Reduced need for sleep Unusual talkativeness Racing thoughts Distractibility Poor decision-making, such as going on buying sprees, taking sexual risks, or making foolish investments Major depressive episode A major depressive episode includes symptoms that are severe enough to cause noticeable difficulty in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities, or relationships.Five or more of these symptoms are included in an episode:
Discouraged temperament, for example, feeling miserable, vacant, irredeemable or sorrowful (in youngsters and adolescents, discouraged mind-set can show up as crabbiness)
Checked loss of interest or feeling no delight altogether — or practically all — exercises
Huge weight reduction while not eating fewer carbs, weight gain, or diminishing or expansion in hunger (in youngsters, inability to put on weight true to form can be an indication of sorrow)
Either a sleeping disorder or dozing excessively
Either fretfulness or eased back conduct
Weariness or loss of energy
Sensations of uselessness or over the top or unseemly responsibility
Diminished capacity to think or focus, or hesitation
Pondering, arranging or endeavoring self destruction
Signs and side effects of bipolar I and bipolar II problems might incorporate different highlights, like restless misery, despairing, psychosis or others.Diagnostic terms like mixed or rapid cycling may be used to describe the onset of symptoms.Additionally, bipolar symptoms can manifest during pregnancy or shift according to the seasons.
Children and adolescents’ symptoms Bipolar disorder symptoms can be difficult to identify.It’s often hard to tell if these ups and downs are just part of life, caused by stress or a traumatic event, or symptoms of something other than bipolar disorder.
The pattern of major depressive, manic, or hypomanic episodes that children and adolescents experience may differ from that of adults with bipolar disorder.Moreover, moods can change quickly during episodes.Between episodes, some children may experience periods without mood symptoms.
A child or adolescent with bipolar disorder may exhibit severe mood swings that are distinct from their usual mood swings.bipolar When to see a doctor Despite the extreme mood swings, people with bipolar disorder frequently fail to receive the necessary treatment because they are unaware of how much their emotional instability interferes with their lives and the lives of those they care about.